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Victims of Domestic Sex Trafficking: Do Advocacy and Recovery Services Aid Rehabilitation?

(Author: April Rice-Johnson)


The recovery, rehabilitation and reintegration of sex trafficking victims is often a difficult, complex, and long-term process. Its complexity lies in the fact that it is a different process for each victim and recovery not only involves the victim, but also the community and culture within which the reintegration is to take place. Reintegration of victims of trafficking entails more than moving a victim back home or to another selected place. The process entails putting the pieces of the victim’s life back together in a way that she can be reunited with her family, and community, and if necessary, helping the victim create a new life in another place in society. This process is more difficult when dealing with victims who are immigrants remaining in the United States because of the many challenges they face in adapting to a new culture. In fact, survivors of trafficking often lack the basic skills necessary to live independently, such as making financial decisions on their own or using public transportation. Their inability to function independently is primarily due to the power and control of their trafficker. In this research paper, I will discuss recovery services available, and the challenges and barriers in providing those services to sex trafficking victims. In addition I will share what the literature suggests about identification of victims, the effects of sexual exploitation on its victims, and the experiences of service providers and some law enforcement while providing services to this group. Further, I will explain the methodology used to research recovery and rehabilitation services as well as compare the literature to the real experience of a service provider. Finally, I will suggest how advocacy can play a role in the rehabilitation for victims of sex trafficking.


Research Question: What Recovery Services are available to victims of domestic sex trafficking and how can advocacy aid in rehabilitation?

Sex trafficking is an atrocious crime and is a violation of human rights.  More importantly, it is a form of violence that poses numerous health risks and frequently is life-threatening. The physical and emotional trauma, degradation, and violence associated with sex trafficking has severe effects on its victims. Moreover, the devastating abuse and unrelenting fear that victims experience, bring about grave effects to their physical, psychological, and emotional health. The United States Department of State set forth the definition of sex trafficking in the Trafficking Victims Protection Act of 2000 (TVPA). According to the TVPA, sex trafficking is defined as “a commercial sex act induced by force, fraud, or coercion, or in which the person induced to perform such an act has not attained 18 years of age” (U.S. Dept. of State, 2009). In short, a commercial sex act is the exchange of any sexual act for anything of value.

Domestic sex trafficking has become a major issue in the United States for several reasons: First, the number of victims continues to increase every year. Second, victims are hard to identify because of the secretive nature of the business. Lastly, the intense case management and complex medical treatment needed to care for victims, is beyond the scope of what social service professionals and medical clinicians can provide. This is primarily due to a lack of training and misconception that sex-trafficking is an international issue. Further, this lack of understanding impacts the ability of the staff to provide appropriate services to meet the needs of this population. In fact, the services currently being provided to this population are considered inadequate. For instance, time restrictions at shelters make it difficult to provide long-term care for this population, including intensive case management. Another example to consider is the training and expertise of therapists, or the lack thereof: therapists are trained to work with patients victimized by sexual abuse dealing with a small number of abusers, sometimes only one, whereas sex trafficking victims experience severe trauma and torture from hundreds of abusers.

Why recovery services are important

Because victims of sex trafficking experience inhumane living conditions, inadequate diet and hygiene, severe emotional and physical abuse, and denial of their basic human rights to healthcare and protection, receiving adequate recovery services is crucial. Ultimately, victims could potentially suffer psychological and physical health problems throughout the course of their lives if early and on-going intervention services are not provided.  The recovery process is complex and can vary drastically depending on the victim’s needs. For example, the needs of a victim taken from her family as a child might vary from the needs of an adult victim coerced into the business.

More importantly, sex trafficking poses a serious health, safety and economic concern.  Because survivors of sex trafficking sometimes have arrest records for prostitution, this makes it challenging to find jobs. Further, recent research has both confirmed and further described detrimental health consequences, such as exposure to HIV and sexually transmitted infections (Decker et al., 2011; Silverman et al., 2006), and substance abuse (Silverman et al., 2011). Consequently, the needs of victims can be highly complex. For example, comprehensive health services and treatment that cover a broad spectrum is very important for survivors to sustain a healthy life. In addition, a need for a continuum of care from emergency to short-term to longer-term assistance is also critical part of recovery services. Because without proper intervention, the risk of being re-trafficked can be high.

Finally, the fact that policy-makers and service providers have focused more on the criminal aspect of the issue rather than the health concerns and recovery for victims further complicates this issue.


Ultimately, I have three main goals. First, I want to conduct extensive research on the rehabilitation and recovery services available to victims of Domestic Sex Trafficking in United States. Second, I want to learn the different stages of rehabilitation for survivors. Learning the different stages will help to understand what services are available and what services are needed to improve programs that serve this population.  Lastly, I want to identify the concerns of service providers and as a result, encourage advocacy through public awareness.  For example, the public becoming more aware will compel political efforts and drive policy change, whereas research and program evaluation will help strengthen the work that is being done directly with victims.

To put it another way, further strengthening collaboration between practitioners serving trafficked people and researchers will provide a foundation for increasing program and intervention evaluations, which in turn can enhance the capacity of programs to provide best practices.


Literature Review

 The United States Department of Health and Human Services (2007) suggests that this population of trafficked people is at the highest risk of being victimized by traffickers because they are “visible” and easily accessible” (p.11). Supporting this research is Fong and Berger Cardoso (2010) that also suggest…”runaway, homeless or children in or leaving foster care” are at a higher risk of trafficking (p.311). Whereas, Roby (2009) argues that at the forefront of sexual exploitation is poverty. Although the U. S. Department of Health and Human Services (2007) suggest that homeless, runaways and throwaways are at the highest risk of being victimized, the article also supports Roby’s argument by suggesting that “traffickers take advantage of the unequal status of women and girls in disadvantaged countries and communities…”(p.7).

Ultimately, force and deception are identified by Schauer & Wheaton (2006) as the key to the issue. They blame the expansion of the illegal sex market on the establishment of U.S. Military bases in Thailand. Agreeing with this is Yen (2008) who suggests that the influx of American soldiers in Southeast Asia suddenly and rapidly increased the demand for commercial sexual services (p. 666).  In fact, Yen (2008) argues that the prevalence of prostitution in areas with heavy military presence is evidence that male demand directly impacts sex trafficking patterns and the location of brothels. Yen (2008) further explains that in the sex trafficking business, the victims are merely “expendable, reusable, and resalable cheap commodities” (p.658).

Moreover, Yen suggests that sex trafficking is the perfect criminal business, because unlike drugs or guns, which can only be sold once, trafficked victims can be sold again and again. As a result, the financial return is lucrative: victims can earn $75,000 to $250,000 or more each year for their trafficker (p.658). Contributing to this problem is the fact that the risk for arrest is low, and penalties are mild in comparison to those of drug-related offenses. Consequently, “sex trafficking has emerged to the new crime of choice for the international organized criminal rings” (Yen, 2008, p.659). In addition, I. Yen argues that the United States has historically ignored the role of male demand in fostering sex trafficking and prostitution. Therefore, male buyers are able to escape accountability and responsibility for their central role in perpetuating the sex slave trade.

Despite the fact that traffickers gain enormous profits, it is the victims that bear the immeasurable human cost of sex trafficking. Baldwin et al. (2011) stress that regardless of how the victim was exploited, victims of sex trafficking “suffer intense abuse that often results in physical and mental illness” (p.37). Dovydaitis (2010) equally supports the idea that victims of sex trafficking suffer numerous physical and psychological problems, but asserts the fact that sex trafficking “undermines the health, safety, and security of all nations it touches” (p. 462). Dovydaitis (2010) and Greenbaum et al. (2015) agree that victims endure severe physical abuse and torture while in captivity, and further suggest that because of the severe psychological abuse, it consequently results in high rates of depression, drug addiction, post-traumatic stress disorder and a multitude of somatic symptoms. Todres (2011) supports the fact that victims suffer severe health symptoms, more specifically, the most common concurrent symptoms reported are headaches, back pain, dizzy spells, stomach/abdominal pain and memory loss and nightmares (p.89). Yen (2008) explains that traffickers routinely beat, rape, starve, confine, torture, and psychologically and emotionally abuse the women.  He further explains that if the victim tries to escape, she bears a high risk of being caught and severely beaten or even killed by her trafficker (p.660). In other words, Yen (2008) explains that most victims only survive for two to four years before they die as a result of homicide, suicide, HIV/AIDS, or other factors (p. 659).

Unfortunately, identifying the victims of this crime is one of many challenges for law enforcement and services providers. Fong and Berger (2010) best describe the situation by stating “Due to the secretive nature of sex trafficking, accurate data on the number victimized each year is limited”, however, “conservative measures indicate that between 300,000 to 400,000 are exploited through prostitution in the United States each year” (p.313). U. S. Department of Health and Human Services (2007) extended the definition by explaining that victims are inaccurately recorded due to a difference in definition and beliefs “among service providers and law enforcement about who is a victim of trafficking” (p.6). Moreover, Clawson ans Dutch (2008) further explain that victims often do not understand that they are victims of a crime. Therefore, as a result, victims often go unidentified and unserved.

Most research agrees that Health Care Providers are one of the few professionals to interact with trafficked women and girls while in captivity. In fact, Dovydaitis (2010) explains that because health care providers are more likely to interact with victims of sex trafficking during their captivity, they are “in a unique position to identify victims…and provide important physical and psychological care” (p.462). Supporting this research is Baldwin et al. (2011) that also suggest… “Health care providers can facilitate the identification and rescue of trafficking victims” (p.37). Whereas, Greenbaum et al. (2015) argues that identification of victims can be difficult for medical providers because “victims seldom self-identify, and clinically validated screening tools for the health care setting are lacking” (p.568). In addition to the lack of health care screening tools, Baldwin et al (2011) further asserts that language barriers for health care providers present a major challenge especially in “Los Angeles County where an estimated 150 languages are spoken and more than 2.5 million people have limited English proficiency” (p.45).  In contrast, control and coercion by traffickers, fear, shame and language barriers all “impede victim identification in clinical settings” (Baldwin et al., 2011, p. 48).

Although some policy makers question whether human trafficking should be labeled a public health concern, Todres (2011) argues that practitioners distinguish medicine as the “discipline focused on the health of the individuals” and public health at the forefront for dealing with the health of the population (p.468). He further asserts that most governments have focused on the criminal aspect of sex trafficking and have allocated very limited resources to victim assistance programs (p. 463). In other words, Todres (2011) warns that there are strong arguments “in favor of deeming human trafficking a public health issue” (p.468).  Whereas, Yen (2008) explains that sex trafficking is fundamentally an economic problem. In addition, he further asserts that the male demand for commercial sexual services stimulates and sustains the growing sex trafficking industry (p.655) and puts the responsibility on law makers. He explains that ultimately, the most significant flaw of the Trafficking Victims Protection Act (TVPA), is that it fails to address and penalize the male demand side of sex trafficking.

Once sexually exploited victims have been identified, Fong and Berger discuss how “there are few secure shelters and treatment programs that can aid in rehabilitation and reintegration’ (p.314). In fact, most governments, including the United States, have directed their focus primarily on the criminal aspect of sex trafficking. As a result, very limited resources have been allocated for victim assistance programs and program development that focuses primarily on prevention. USAID (2007) reminds us of the critical factors intertwined in rehabilitation, reintegration, and recovery which include the individuals’ age; emotional and psychological health; culture; duration of their exploitation and their perceptions of the damage done (p.17).

USAID (2007) acknowledges that ultimately the most important factor for shelters serving victims of sex trafficking, is the need to find ways to achieve long-term sustainability of recovery and rehabilitation services (p. 22).  The U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (2008) suggests that a broad range of immediate victim needs include emergency housing, food/clothing, medical and legal services to name a few. Clawson et al. (2008) support the fact that service providers are challenged with providing mental health treatment and trauma-informed services for victims because of affordability and access to services, as well as, the responsiveness of those services to the complex needs of survivors (p. 9). In addition, providers report that insurance and/or funding restrictions often limit the number of sessions that a victim can receive. Furthermore, traditional therapy is often “ill-designed to respond to the needs of transient victim populations” (Fong & Cardoso, 2009, p. 314). Further, Clawson et al. (2008) assert that another barrier to providing services to victims is that they have a difficult time trusting law enforcement and service providers. Actually, Clawson et al. (2008) acknowledge the fact that a victim’s mistrust is compounded by fears that their connection with law enforcement and service providers can compromise their physical safety, such as being deported or their trafficker finding them (p. 9). Supporting this idea is Department of Health and Human Services (2008) that considers how victims have been taught to fear law enforcement and are often reluctant to come forward because they fear retribution from their traffickers and fear arrest and deportation (p.18).

Moreover, Fong and Berger Cardoso (2010) assert that many shelters and treatment programs do not provide services specific to sexually exploited victims (p. 314). Kotrla (2010) further explains the “struggle encountered by service providers” to find safe housing for victims (p. 184). Whereas Clawson and Dutch (2008) emphasize that regardless of the victim, service providers stress that it is not so much the type of needs that vary by victim, but rather, it is the duration of services required to address those needs and the level of difficulty obtaining such services (p. 3). Clawson and Dutch (2008) explain the challenges for service providers to provide culturally appropriate services. While, Clawson and Dutch (2008) argue that it is only one part of what needs to be provided. Moreover, they emphasize that in some cultures victims are not comfortable talking about their experiences with someone from the same culture because of the associated stigma and shame (p. 7). In addition, in some cultures, it is not acceptable for a female to visit a male physician, making it more difficult for service providers to coordinate care.

USAID (2007) agrees that for women and girls from difficult or dysfunctional family environments, returning home may have an adverse effect on their recovery (p. 20). Furthermore, USAID (2007) concedes that the desire to avoid returning home, may stem from a desire to avoid the root causes of trafficking — poverty, lack of sustainable economic opportunities, and domestic abuse (p. 21).

While addressing the concerns of rehabilitation, some victims according to Wickham (2009) have expressed encountering poor living conditions in facilities providing services, as well as discrimination and prejudice from service providers (p. 15). In addition, victims expressed feelings of oppression by rehabilitation centers through moral condemnation, because of their involvement in the sex trade (p. 15). Furthermore, Wickham (2009) argues that despite their experiences of violence and exploitation, some victims view the sex industry as the only means of survival and have rejected rehabilitation and reintegration services, therefore choosing to remain in the sex industry (p. 15).

In contrast, Clawson and Grace (2007) discuss the debate among providers as to the appropriate setting for a stand-alone residential program for domestically sex-trafficked girls (p. 4). USAID (2007) explains that the purpose of a long-term shelter is to assist individuals with the reintegration process (p. 14). In fact, reintegration into society, within their families, or into new communities is a vital part of their recovery. For example, some providers push for programs to be located outside of an urban area because they believe that “anyone with PTSD is better able to begin recovery away from the daily triggers” (Clawson & Grace, 2007, p. 5). Whereas, according to Clawson and Grace (2007), other providers argue that the distance of the shelter will provide added security measures from traffickers. Conversely, where to establish a shelter also depends heavily on “availability and cost” (Clawson & Grace, 2007, P. 5). Shigenkane (2007) explains that shelter space can sometimes be problematic, because most trafficking survivors need a longer stay than what most shelters provide. For instance, domestic violence survivors typically stay in a shelter between three to nine months, whereas Shigenkane (2007) explains a survivor of trafficking may typically need one to one and one-half years (p. 128). Clawson and Grace (2007) assert that not only is it important to maintain the security of survivors but “ensuring the safety of the facility and staff themselves is also a priority” (Clawson & Grace, 2007, p. 5). Supporting this is Shigenkane (2007) who suggest shelters may not be fully prepared to provide the level of security needed to house trafficking victims (p. 5).

Additionally, another important point Clawson and Grace (2007) make is the need to employ an all-female staff because the victims’ trafficker was most likely male. However, some providers advocate for the appropriate use of male staff and the fact that it could benefit victims by having healthy interactions and help rebuilding trust with males (p. 5). Whereas Clawson and Grace, (2007) claim that law enforcement agrees that there is not a “one size fits all” model to serving this population (p. 9). Instead, long-term care is needed to ensure stability and a safe exit.


The purpose of this study was to determine the rehabilitation services available to victims of sex trafficking and what role does advocacy play in their recovery. The goal of this study was to determine the challenges and barriers service providers encounter while trying to provide quality services to victims. Moreover, this study will provide a framework for service providers to utilize for the improvement of services.

I conducted this study from an advocacy and participatory worldview (Cresswell, 2007). I chose this worldview for three reasons. First, the research contains an action agenda that will encourage reform and may contribute to changing the lives of the participants through improving services. Second, I am seeking to understand specific issues surrounding the unique experience of the service providers. Lastly, because the advocacy and participatory worldview begins with an important societal issue, this style of research specifically provides a voice for service providers.

The study will use a qualitative research design to interview a service provider and determine the challenges and barriers involved in providing rehabilitative services to victims. In addition, this design will identify the role that advocates play in aiding in the recovery process or the lack thereof. This research design is appropriate because it is exploratory, because not much has been written about the perspective of the service provider and the ongoing challenges they often experience as a result of being on the frontline providing services. Furthermore, information on the role of an advocate in the process of a victim’s recovery is minimal.  As a researcher, I was able to build the depth of my understanding through listening to their experience.

The organization of interest was The Jenesse Center that provides services to domestic violence victims as well as sex trafficking victims. The service provider was chosen by the program director and was on the basis of who was available to speak with me, and the subject inclusion criteria was that the service provider had at least one year of experience in the field providing service to this population. I conducted a phone interview that included a questionnaire (see Appendix B.) specifically designed to capture the issues surrounding their ability to provide quality and effective services to this population.

The phone interview took place on December 1, 2016 and lasted approximately 40 minutes. During initial contact the service provider was asked to sign an informed consent form (see Appendix A.) and return it to me prior to our phone interview. The results of the interview were analyzed immediately and used to complete my research study on services available to sex trafficking victims.


The limitations of the proposed study were the limited scholarly literature available on the subject due to the focus of research being primarily on the supply and criminal aspects of the issue. Another limitation was the availability of a service provider to participate in a phone interview with me.

Human Subjects

The proposed study did not pose any risk to subjects, however, participants were skeptical of my identity and the purpose of my conducting the research. This was primarily out of concern to preserve their identity. This external risk to the service provider was mitigated by ensuring confidentiality of the questionnaire, and not exposing her name. Instead, I will refer to her as SP1.


During a 40 minute phone interview with a Y. Tarver, a service provider, of The Jenesse Center located in Central Los Angeles, we discussed services available to sex trafficking victims through their agency.  According to research, there are few shelters or agencies dedicated to servicing only sex trafficking victims. Y. Tarver confirmed this by explaining that the center initially served victims of domestic violence, however recently they have opened their doors to serve victims of sex trafficking. Y. Tarver also acknowledged the lack of knowledge and understanding of domestic sex trafficking and expressed the concern for more staff training on the complex needs and unique experiences of this population.

In addition, she agreed that one of the greatest challenges is the lack of knowledge not only of service providers, but also among law enforcement and healthcare personnel. Both law enforcement and health care professionals fail to identify this population as victims and have sensitivity for their circumstances.  She was of two minds when discussing the issue. First, she argues that although recent legislation has decriminalized this population, law enforcement continues to criminalize victims during their interaction with them by seeing their behavior as either black (wrong) or white (right). In other words, they are not trained to listen to the story (sympathize) and act accordingly. More often than not, they are concerned with whether a crime has taken place. Second, healthcare professionals contribute to victims not receiving services because of their lack of identification methods in the healthcare setting. Research concedes that health care providers’ are more likely to interact with victims of sex trafficking during their captivity, they are “in a unique position to identify victims…and provide important physical and psychological care” (Dovydaitis, 2010, p. 462).

Conversely, research suggests that there is a lack of collaborative working relationships across multiple disciplines and is a barrier for most service providers. However, because the Jenesse Center is very well established in the community, they have great collaborative relationships with multiple disciplines which support their coordination of care. For example, they have two nearby clinics and one hospital that see their clients immediately upon arrival, in addition to having a Registered Nurse on staff. Further, they have relationships formed with two mental health agencies that see patients regularly. A therapist also leads weekly therapeutic group sessions at the agency. Research expressed a concern for the cost associated with receiving mental health services particularly due to the criteria and red tape associated with the medical insurance companies.  Fortunately, The Jenesse Center has not encountered any barriers in providing healthcare while coordinating care for clients, in fact, they cover all expenses for their clients until their reintegration back into society.

Research also identified legal services as being a challenge in providing care. However, Y. Tarver expressed that their center has a partnership with a law firm located in downtown Los Angeles, which provide helpful workshops once a month on immigration services in addition to other issues related to this population.  Y. Tarver shared that in addition to coordinating legal services, service providers prepare and accompany victims to court.

Fortunately, the Jenesse Center is currently established as a 30 to 45 day emergency shelter for victims of domestic violence, in addition they provide transitional housing for up to 24 months. On one hand, this information is different from what research has reported, which is that most service providers lack the resources available to provide long-term care. Whereas, on the other hand, it supports research because long-term services are provided by the shelter, but only because the agency is established as a domestic violence shelter which recently began servicing this unique population.

  1. Tarver discussed the ongoing classes available to victims such as financial and computer literacy through coordination of their case management. This supports research which suggested vocational classes in the form of subjects like computer literacy, so that victims would have a better chance at competing in the job market if they are to reintegrate back into society safely.

Victims also experience special activities to aid in their rehabilitation and help build self-esteem. For example, beauty day where professionals provide specialized services (hair, nails, makeup) to victims, as well as yoga classes.  In addition, victims receive make-overs before transitioning into employment, which include clothes and other necessities to aid in their transformation. This module supports what research suggests about empowerment and self-esteem building being a success tool to aid in the rehabilitation of victims.



In viewing sex trafficking through a theoretical lens, cultural theories on aggression and violence (M. Deutsch) analyze the relationship of violence and culture. This theory focuses on three contexts: sexualization, honor ideologies, and non-Western practices. Specifically, sexualization addresses the critical issue surrounding this research paper.  This theory is important and relates to sex trafficking because it explains how the sexualization of women and girls is increasingly understood as a symptom of social inequality on multiple axes of oppression (Liu & Opotow, 2014). Culturally, women are devalued and viewed as subservient, these views coupled with poverty and the lack of opportunity supports the growing business of human sex trafficking. Researchers assert that in the United States, the business of sex trafficking is growing “to service the demand,” which they argue is due to “normalization and promotion of commercial sex across America” (Kotrla, 2010, p. 183).

Sex trafficking applies to the theory of power orientations because. Coleman (2014) insists that it has two forms: Support or Autonomy.  Support ranges from either benign or supportive to oppressive and abusive. In sex trafficking, victims suffer oppressive and abusive power at the hands of their trafficker. Furthermore, Coleman (2014) emphasizes the negative physical and psychological impact of prolonged experiences of dependence and powerlessness and as a result, has been shown to be dire (p. 143). Whereas, Autonomy as Coleman (2014) explains is the opposite because it refers to a person having enough power to achieve without being constrained by someone else. In fact, sex trafficking victims expressed feelings of empowerment after receiving adequate services over time and eventually lessened the need to depend on others, which opens up the possibility of acting independently, thereby boosting their self-esteem and building confidence.

There is very little literature available on programs and services developed specifically for victims of domestic sex trafficking. However, what is known about victims of sex trafficking is focused primarily on the sexual exploitation of international women into the United States. Victims of sex trafficking require a central location to receive comprehensive services. Service providers working with this population emphasize that trauma recovery is critical to a victim’s ability to repair and regain control of her life.  However, there are many challenges to meeting needs of trafficking victims especially since a comprehensive approach should include safety as well as treatment, which requires the coordination of multiple systems of care.  Service providers stress the fact that “there is not a ‘one size fits all’ model for serving domestically sex-trafficked girls” (Clawson & Grace, 2007, p. 9).

Furthermore, programs need to add more training and access to appropriate resources to better serve this population. The challenges associated with providing adequate services to sex trafficking victims can be overwhelming, but manageable.  Effective strategies should be comprehensive and most importantly, should include at a minimum, intensive case management and comprehensive services. Through partnerships and ongoing outreach and education with documentation of their activities will offer a framework for the field of Negotiation Conflict Resolution and Peacebuilding.



Baldwin, S. B., Eisenman, D. P., Sayles, J. N., Ryan, G., & Chuang, K. S. (2011). Identification of human trafficking victims in health care settings. Health and Human Rights, 13(1), 36-49.

Clawson, H. J., & Goldblatt G. L. (2007). Finding a path to recovery: Residential facilities for minor victims of domestic sex trafficking. DigitalCommons@University of Nebraska – Lincoln.

Clawson, H. J., Salomon, A., & Grace, L. G. (2007). Treating the hidden wounds: Trauma treatment and mental health recovery for victims of human trafficking. Washington, DC: Dept. of Health and Human Services, Office of the Assistant Secretary for Planning and Evaluation.

Clawson, H. J., & Dutch, N. (2008). Addressing the needs of victims of human trafficking: Challenges, barriers, and promising practices. Washington, DC: Dept. of Health and Human Services, Office of the Assistant Secretary for Planning and Evaluation.

Clawson, H. J., N. Dutch, A. Solomon, L.., & Goldblatt Grace. (2009). Human trafficking into and within the United States: A review of the Literature. Washington, DC: Dept. of Health and Human Services, Office of the Assistant Secretary for Planning and Evaluation.

Coleman, P. T., Marcus, E. C., & Deutsch, M. (2014). The handbook of conflict resolution: Theory and practice. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

Dovydaitis, T. (2010). Human trafficking: The role of the health care provider. Journal of Midwifery and Women’s Health, 55( 5), 462-467.

Fong, R., & Berger, C. J. (2010). Child human trafficking victims: Challenges for the child welfare system. Evaluation and Program Planning, 33, 3, 311-316.

Greenbaum, J., Crawford-Jakubiak, J. E., & Committee on Child Abuse and Neglect. (2015). Child sex trafficking and commercial sexual exploitation: health care needs of victims. Pediatrics, 135, 3, 566-74.

Rafferty, Y. (2013). Child Trafficking and Commercial Sexual Exploitation: A Review of Promising Prevention Policies and Programs. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 83, 4, 559-575.

Shigekane, R. (2007). Rehabilitation and Community Integration of Trafficking Survivors in the United States. Human Rights Quarterly, 29, 1, 112-136.

Wickham, L. (2009). The Rehabilitation and Reintegration Process for Women and Children Recovering from the Sex Trade. Article, 1-22

Appendix A

Class Project Consent Form

Date:  December 1, 2016

Dear Participant:

You are invited to participate in a project conducted as part of the requirements for Independent study 594.47 course at California State University: Dominguez Hills in Carson, California. For this project, I will be conducting telephone interview about the services available to victims of sex trafficking. The research will be supervised by Margaret Manning. M.A., Dip. Ed;

Adjunct Assistant Professor: Negotiation, Conflict Resolution, and Peacebuilding program.

The purpose of this research project is to help beginning researchers learn more about conflict theories as applied to a particular case study. The information generated will not be used for academic research or publication. All information obtained will be treated confidentially.

For this project, you will be asked to provide information about Victims of Human Sex Trafficking.

For this project, I will taking notes during a 40 min phone interview with you – or, you will provide information based on an email version of interview questions. My notes will be stored in a secure location, and they will be labeled with a number code so that your identity is protected, if you so choose. I may quote some of your comments in my class paper, but no identifying information about you or your organization will be included so that no one will know how you or your organization responded to the interview questions, should you so choose.

You are free to discontinue participating in the interview or decline to answer any question at any time if you choose. If you have any questions or concerns, feel free to contact me at [323 945-2702 and].  You are also free to contact my professor, Margaret Manning, at Thank you very much for your help.




Name Printed and Signed



Margaret Manning, M.A., Dip. Ed

Adjunct Assistant Professor: Negotiation, Conflict Resolution, and Peacebuilding program

The researcher has adequately described the study to me, and I understand what I am asked to do and agree to participate.

Please sign both copies, keep one copy, and return one to the researcher.
(Electronic signature is NOT acceptable)



Signature of Researcher          Date                 Signature of Participant           Date




Appendix B

Service Provider Questionnaire

  1. What are your job responsibilities with the Jenesse Center?
  2. What type of services do you provide to sex trafficking victims?
  3. What therapeutic interventions are in place to help victims?
  4. What is your greatest challenge in proving services to this population?
  5. What do you think is needed to improve the services available to these victims?
  6. What are the stages of rehabilitation?
  7. What is the age range of ST victims you serve?
  8. Is language a barrier for providing services to international victims?
  9. What are some celebrations, if any, that you have for the victims as they accomplish different stages in their rehabilitation?
  10. From your experience, has it been difficult for ST victims to complete the stages of recovery?

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